NEURO-DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS (NDD)

In normal Neurodevelopment of a child all Primitive Reflexes are integrated into increasingly more complex voluntary and controlled movements. Many factors may interfere with this Neuro-developmental integration/activation of the Neurological Systems and therefore may impact on learning developmental processes. What are these Primitive Reflexes?
  1. They are survival reflexes occurring sequentially in the first few month of the infant. These reflexes are only important for the infant (even unborn child) to feed and to assist in developing skills for survival. It is a prerequisite for normal further development and all should be present to fulfil it's purpose to enable the child to move onwards to the next developmental stage(s). Primitive reflexes have a very short lifespan and has to integrate towards more complex activities.
  2. Automatic and stereotyped movements managed by the primitive brain, namely the Brainstem
  3. Higher brain structures are not involved
  4. It is considered aberrant and indicate immature Neurological Systems when these reflexes continue beyond the age of 1 year
  5. It is replaced by postural reflexes, otherwise it is retained and influence learning and development negatively. The development of postural reflexes are equally important to learning
  6. Even the absence of one of the reflexes (Primitive and Postural) in the early developmental months will impact on the child's normal development

Factors that may impact and weaken the normal Neurodevelopment of a child are: environmental influences, illnesses, birth trauma, genetic pre-disposition, problems during pregnancy, trauma and malnutrition to mention a few. The following are possible signs of Neuro-Developmental Delays (NDD):


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Learning
  • Difficulties in processing visual information and information from other senses
  • Confuse left and right
  • Motor coordination problems
  • Spatial/proprioception problems
  • High or low muscle tone
  • Body positioning changes upside down or across bed during sleep
  • Clumsiness/bumping into objects
  • Hypersensitivity to light, sound and touch (tactility)
  • Dyspraxia
  • Posture and gait problems
  • Problems with gross and fine motor skills
  • Balance problems
  • Traumatic birth history
  • Speech problems
  • Hand-eye coordination problems
  • Midline problems
  • Falling off the bed during sleep
Visual-Motor
  • Difficulties in processing visual information and information from other senses
  • Confuse left and right
  • Motor coordination problems
  • Spatial/proprioception problems
  • High or low muscle tone
  • Body positioning changes upside down or across bed during sleep
  • Clumsiness/bumping into objects
  • Hypersensitivity to light, sound and touch (tactility)
  • Dyspraxia
  • Posture and gait problems
  • Problems with gross and fine motor skills
  • Balance problems
  • Traumatic birth history
  • Speech problems
  • Hand-eye coordination problems
  • Midline problems
  • Falling off the bed during sleep
Behavioural
  • Depression, anxiety or stress
  • Difficulties in coping with change
  • Hyper- or hypo-activity
  • Behavioural problems
  • Attention and concentration difficulties
  • Fidgeting
  • School Phobia and Anxiety
  • Continuous bedwetting
  • Impulsiveness
  • Panic attacks
  • Low self-esteem
  • Easily frustrated and short temper
  • Motion sickness
  • Social problems
  • Unrestful sleep patterns



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